Enjoy free essays, examples of research papers, sample term papers, free dissertation samples and paper writing tips for all students. Example papers and sample papers on the most popular topics. Without the water life Earth would be non-existent, it is essential for everything on our planet to grow and prosper.
Thesis water management india is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Congress grass, Parthenium hysterophorus L.
Heliantheaeis an erect and much branched annual or ephermeral herb, known for its notorious role as environmental, medical, and agricultural hazards. It is believed to have been introduced into India and Australia from North America and in the last few years the weed has emerged as the seventh most devastating weed in Africa, Asia, and Australia.
The aim of this review is to provide general information about the physiology, distribution, ill effects, and management of parthenium. Control of parthenium has been tried by various methods, but no single management option would be adequate to manage parthenium, and there is a need to integrate various management options.
Successful management of this weed can only be achieved by an integrated approach with biological control as the key element. Introduction Parthenium hysterophorus L.
Asteraceaea noxious plant, inhabits many parts of the world, in addition to its native range in North and South America and the West Indies [ 1 ]. According to Holm et al. This is a weed of global significance responsible for severe human and animal health issues, such as dermatitis, asthma and bronchitis, and agricultural losses besides a great problem for biodiversity.
In India, the weed was first pointed out in Poona Maharashtra by Professor Paranjape,as stray plants on rubbish heaps and was reported by Rao [ 3 ] as a new species in India, but the earliest record of this species in India goes back to by Roxburgh, the father of Indian Botany, in his book Hortus Bengalensis [ 34 ].
Ever since the weed became a menace around the globe including India, efforts have been made to manage the weed employing different methods such as mechanical, competitive replacement allelopathychemical, and biological control methods.
However, the weed has defied all human efforts to control it due to one or other disadvantages.
Biological control, the intentional manipulation of natural enemies, insects, bioherbicides, nematodes, snails, and competitive plants to control harmful weeds, is gaining momentum as it is an effective and ecofriendly alternative to conventional methods of weed control [ 5 ].
Distribution and Biology of Parthenium Weed 2. The weed has now invaded more than 20 countries around the globe, including five continents and numerous islands.
Recent developments have indicated that African countries are at high risk of invasion. It is now also present in eight provinces of China and spreading at an alarming rate.
Partheniumprobably entered India before through contaminated cereal grain but went unrecorded until Sincethe weed has spread like wildfire throughout India [ 7 ].
Name The genus name Parthenium is derived from the Latin word parthenice—a reference to the plant now known as Tanacetum parthenium L. It is commonly called as bitter weed, carrot weed, broom bush, and congress grass India ; whitetop, escobar amarga, and feverfew Caribbean and; false ragweed and ragweed parthenium USA.
Morphology of the Plant P. Heliantheae is fast maturing, erect, and much branched annual or ephemeral herb.A new sales outlet.
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We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. Drinking water supply and sanitation in India continue to be inadequate, despite longstanding efforts by the various levels of government and communities at improving coverage.
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water resources management (IWRM) concept at both the policy and ﬁeld level. IWRM has been chosen as a focus of this study as all contemporary international conferences, summits, regional water policies and declarations promote the IWRM concept for the effective and efﬁcient management of water resources.
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