He was not, however, an popular thinker during his lifetime and it was not until many years after his death that the profound nature of his work truly gained notoriety.
Detail from a painting by Allan Ramsey, Introduction David Hume - was a Scottish philosopher, economist and historian of the Age of Enlightenment.
He was an important figure in the Scottish Enlightenment and, along with John Locke and Bishop George Berkeleyone of the three main figureheads of the influential British Empiricism movement. He was a fierce opponent of the Rationalism of DescartesLeibniz and Spinozaas well as an atheist and a skeptic.
He has come to be considered as one of the most important British philosophers of all time, and he was a huge influence on later philosophers, from Immanuel Kant and Arthur Schopenhauer to the Logical Positivists and Analytic Philosophers of the 20th Century, as well as on intellectuals in other fields including Albert Einstein, who claimed to have been inspired by Hume's skepticism of the established order.
Even today, Hume's philosophical work remains refreshingly modern, challenging and provocative. In later life, however, he largely turned away from philosophy in favor of economics and his other great love, history, and it was only then that he achieved recognition in his own lifetime.
He changed his name to Hume in because the English had difficulty pronouncing "Home" The life and work of the scottish philospher david hume the Scottish manner.
He was well read, even as a child, and had a good grounding in Greek and Latin.
He attended the University of Edinburgh at the unusually early age of twelve possibly as young as tenalthough he had little respect for the professors there and soon threw over a prospective career in law in favor of philosophy and general learning. At the tender age of eighteen, he made a great "philosophical discovery" which remains somewhat unexplained and mysterious that led him to devote the next ten years of his life to a concentrated period of study, reading and writing, almost to the verge of a nervous breakdown.
In order to earn a living, he took a position in a merchant's office in Bristol before moving to Anjou, France in It was there that he used up his savings to support himself while he wrote his masterwork, "A Treatise of Human Nature", which he completed in at only 26 years of age.
Despite the disappointment of the work's poor reception in Britain it was considered "abstract and unintelligible"he immediately set to work to produce an anonymous "Abstract" or shortened version of it.
After the publication of his "Essays Moral and Political" inHume was refused a post at the University of Edinburgh after local ministers petitioned the town council not to appoint Hume due to his Atheism. For about a year he tutored the unstable Marquise of Annandale and became involved with the Canongate Theatre in Edinburgh, where he associated with some of the Scottish Enlightenment luminaries of the time.
Clair, including as an aide-de-camp on diplomatic missions in Austria and Northern Italy, and even at one point as a staff officer on an ill-fated military expedition as part of the War of the Austrian Succession. It was during this period that he wrote his "Philosophical Essays Concerning Human Understanding", later published as "An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding", which proved little more successful than the "Treatise".
He was charged with heresy although he was defended by his young clerical friends, who argued that, as an atheisthe was outside the Church's jurisdictionand was again deliberately overlooked for the Chair of Philosophy at the University of Glasgow.
Inthe Faculty of Advocates employed him as their librarian, for which he received little or no emolument, but which gave him access to a large library, and which enabled him to continue historical research for his "History of Great Britain".
This enormous work, begun in and not completed untilran to over a million words and traced events from the Saxon kingdoms to the Glorious Revolution. It was a best-seller in its day and became the standard work on English history for many years.
Thus, it was as a historian that Hume finally achieved literary fame.
|Three to compare||The moral sense school reached its fullest development in the works of two Scottish philosophers, Francis Hutcheson — and David Hume — Hutcheson was concerned with showing, against the intuitionists, that moral judgment cannot be based on reason and therefore must be a matter… Early life and works Hume was the younger son of Joseph Humethe modestly circumstanced laird, or lord, of Ninewells, a small estate adjoining the village of Chirnside, about nine miles distant from Berwick-upon-Tweed on the Scottish side of the border.|
|Inspirational Quotations by David Hume (Scottish Philosopher, Historian)||Although he spent most of his life trying to produce more effective statements of his philosophical views, he did not live to see the firm establishment of his reputation by the criticisms of Kant and much later appreciation of the logical positivists.|
|Página no encontrada - Sergio Gallegos||Summary David Hume, Scotland's most famous philosopher, was born in Edinburgh on 7th May,and died in Edinburgh on 25th August, at the age of He was a founder and an important figure of the British Renaissance "reawakening"the Scottish Enlightenment and the agnostic school of philosophy - taking Empiricism "reasoning through experience" to its logical conclusion of total scepticism, limited only by practical reservations.|
|David Hume||Share via Email Scottish philosopher and historian David Hume, from a painting circa|
|An encyclopedia of philosophy articles written by professional philosophers.||In contrary to rationalists such as Descartes, Hume argued that it is not reason that governs human behaviour but desire instead. But despite the fact that had profoundly influenced the next generation of philosophers, his theories were not received particularly well by his contemporaries.|
For a year fromhe held the appointment of Under Secretary of State for the Northern Department in London, before retiring back to Edinburgh in He died in Edinburgh on 25 Augustaged 65, probably as a result of a debilitating cancer he suffered from in his latter years, and was buried, as he requested, on Calton Hill, overlooking his home in the New Town of Edinburgh.
He remained to the end positive and humane, well-loved by all who knew him, and he retained great equanimity in the face of his suffering and death. He spent most of the next ten years frantically trying to capture these thoughts on paper, resulting in "A Treatise of Human Nature" which he completed in at the age of just 26 and published two years later.
This book, which he subtitled "An Attempt to Introduce the Experimental Method of Reasoning into Moral Subjects", is now considered to be Hume's most important work and one of the most important books in the whole of Western philosophy, despite its poor initial reception.
He refined the "Treatise" in the later "Philosophical Essays Concerning Human Understanding" actually published as "An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding" inalong with a companion volume "An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals"although these publications proved hardly more successful than the original "Treatise" on which they were based.
Hume was a thorough-going Empiricistthe last chronologically of the three great British Empiricists of the 18th Century along with John Locke and Bishop George Berkeleyand the most extreme. He believed that, as he put it, "the science of man is the only solid foundation for the other sciences", that human experience is as close are we are ever going to get to the truth, and that experience and observation must be the foundations of any logical argument.
Anticipating the Logical Positivist movement by almost two centuries, Hume was essentially attempting to demonstrate how ordinary propositions about objects, causal relations, the self, etc, are semantically equivalent to propositions about one's experiences. He argued that all of human knowledge can be divided into two categories: In the face of this, he argued, in sharp contradistinction to the French Rationaliststhat even the most basic beliefs about the natural world, or even in the existence of the self, cannot be conclusively established by reason, but we accept them anyway because of their basis in instinct and custom, a hard-line Empiricist attitude verging on complete Skepticism.
But Hume's Empiricism and Skepticism was mainly concerned with Epistemology and with the limits of our ability to know things. Although he would almost certainly have believed that there was indeed an independently existing world of material objects, causally interacting with each other, which we perceive and represent to ourselves through our senses, his point was that none of this could be actually proved.
He freely admitted that we can form beliefs about that which extends beyond any possible experience through the operation of faculties such as custom and the imaginationbut he was entirely skeptical about any claims to knowledge on this basis.
He noted that humans tend to believe that things behave in a regular manner, and that patterns in the behavior of objects will persist into the future and throughout the unobserved present an idea sometimes called the Principle of the Uniformity of Nature.
Hume argued forcefully that such a belief cannot be justified, other than by the very sort of reasoning that is under question inductionwhich would be circular reasoning. Hume's solution to this problem was to argue that it is natural instinct, rather than reason, that explains our ability to make inductive inferences, and many have seen this as a major contribution to Epistemology and the theory of knowledge.
Hume was a great believer in the scientific method championed by Francis BaconGalileo Galilei - and Sir Isaac Newton - However, the application of the problem of induction to science suggests that all of science is actually based on a logical fallacy.
The so-called induction fallacy states that, just because something has happened in the past, it cannot be assumed that it will happen again, no matter how often it seems to happen. However, this is exactly what the scientific method is built on, and Hume was forced to conclude, rather unsatisfactorily, that even though the fallacy applies, the scientific method appears to work.
Closely linked to the problem of induction is the notion of causality or causation.Sep 05, · University of British Columbia Professor Paul Russell on the Life and Work of Scottish Philosopher David Hume. a biography and life work of david hume scottish philosopher Anna Regina Adam an introduction and an analysis of the call of the wild the views on women in ancient greece and rome Smith.
David Hume was born in Edinburgh on 26 April He matriculated at Edinburgh University on 27 February , at the age of eleven, and probably left the University as late as He took up law, which he abandoned in , worked for a while for a Bristol . Soon after completing his studies at Edinburgh, Scottish philosopher David Hume began writing his comprehensive statement of the views he believed would contribute to philosophy no .
David Hume David Hume was a Scottish philosopher and economist, who lived from to Concerning government, Hume believed that a government only needs to be run by a clearly defined set of fair laws, and that the type of government, whether absolute monarchy.
The Hume Society; David Hume, entry in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, by James Feiser (University of Tennessee, Martin) David Hume archived version of .