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Overview map of the first day of the Battle of Gettysburg, July 1, Herr Ridge, McPherson Ridge and Seminary Ridge Anticipating that the Confederates would march on Gettysburg from the west on the morning of July 1, Buford laid out his defenses on three ridges west of the town: These were appropriate terrain for a delaying action by his small cavalry division against superior Confederate infantry forces, meant to buy time awaiting the arrival of Union infantrymen who could occupy the strong defensive positions south of town at Cemetery HillCemetery Ridgeand Culp's Hill.
Buford understood that if the Confederates could gain control of these heights, Meade's The battle essay would have difficulty dislodging them.
Archer and Joseph R. They proceeded easterly in columns along the Chambersburg Pike. According to lore, the Union soldier to fire the first shot of the battle was Lt.
Jones returned to Gettysburg to mark the spot where he fired the first shot with a monument. William Gamble's cavalry brigade, who raised determined resistance and delaying tactics from behind fence posts with fire from their breechloading carbines.
Lysander Cutler 's brigade but was repulsed with heavy losses in an action around an unfinished railroad bed cut in the ridge. The Union Iron Brigade under Brig. Solomon Meredith enjoyed initial success against Archer, capturing several hundred men, including Archer himself.
Shelby Foote wrote that the Union cause lost a man considered by many to be "the best general in the army. Abner Doubleday assumed command.
Fighting in the Chambersburg Pike area lasted until about It resumed around 2: The 26th North Carolina the largest regiment in the army with men lost heavily, leaving the first day's fight with around men.
By the end of the three-day battle, they had about men standing, the highest casualty percentage for one battle of any regiment, North or South. William Dorsey Pender 's division to the assault, and the I Corps was driven back through the grounds of the Lutheran Seminary and Gettysburg streets.
Howard raced north on the Baltimore Pike and Taneytown Road. By early afternoon, the Union line ran in a semicircle west, north, and northeast of Gettysburg. The leftmost division of the XI Corps was unable to deploy in time to strengthen the line, so Doubleday was forced to throw in reserve brigades to salvage his line.
The Confederate brigades of Col. Alfred Iverson suffered severe losses assaulting the I Corps division of Brig. Robinson south of Oak Hill. Early's division profited from a blunder by Brig. Barlowwhen he advanced his XI Corps division to Blocher's Knoll directly north of town and now known as Barlow's Knoll ; this represented a salient  in the corps line, susceptible to attack from multiple sides, and Early's troops overran Barlow's division, which constituted the right flank of the Union Army's position.
Barlow was wounded and captured in the attack. Howard ordered a retreat to the high ground south of town at Cemetery Hill, where he had left the division of Brig. Adolph von Steinwehr in reserve. Hancock assumed command of the battlefield, sent by Meade when he heard that Reynolds had been killed.
Hancock, commander of the II Corps and Meade's most trusted subordinate, was ordered to take command of the field and to determine whether Gettysburg was an appropriate place for a major battle. He sent orders to Ewell that Cemetery Hill be taken "if practicable.
About one quarter of Meade's army 22, men and one third of Lee's army 27, were engaged. Two of Longstreet's brigades were on the road: Law had begun the march from Guilford.
Both arrived late in the morning. The shape of the Union line is popularly described as a "fishhook" formation. On the right, Longstreet's First Corps was to position itself to attack the Union left flank, facing northeast astraddle the Emmitsburg Road, and to roll up the U. The attack sequence was to begin with Maj.
Anderson 's division of Hill's Third Corps. Though it does not appear in either his or Lee's Official Report, Ewell claimed years later that Lee had changed the order to simultaneously attack, calling for only a "diversion", to be turned into a full-scale attack if a favorable opportunity presented itself.
Though Lee personally reconnoitered his left during the morning, he did not visit Longstreet's position on the Confederate right.
Even so, Lee rejected suggestions that Longstreet move beyond Meade's left and attack the Union flank, capturing the supply trains and effectively blocking Meade's escape route.Jen was admitted to the hospital at the end of April, her hhip was swelling and she was in tremendous pain as a result of side-effects from radiation treatment.
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