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Sample Essays Hormone replacement therapy has attracted a lot of attention over the past few years. This report included data from 16, post-menopausal women collected at various sites throughout the US.
The authors concluded that hormone combination therapy increased the risk of heart attack, stroke, cancer, and blood clots and had numerous ramifications in the medical community.
Estrogen can be neuroprotective in the brain by reducing the size of infarct and neuronal death after stroke in animal models Jover et al. This is generally studied in healthy, young animals and not aged animals; which may partially account for the discrepancies between findings in animals and humans.
It is unknown if the neuroprotective effects of estrogen are mediated through cells in the brain, such as microglia, or immune cells in the periphery, such as leukocytes. The authors used two groups of rats: Ovaries were removed and replaced with pellets secreting estradiol resulting in physiological levels of circulating estrogen.
Microglia from the brain and blood cells were removed and cultured separately in the lab to asses the effects of immune stimulation in each cell population.
Immune activation was induced through administration of Lipopolysaccharides LPS and the amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines immune signaling molecules were measured. However, estrogen could attenuate the peripheral immune response in young females, but increased cytokine production from peripheral immune cells in aged females.
The authors also report that this effect is only found after chronic pretreatment, and mention unpublished results suggesting that acute estrogen treatment after inflammation has no effect.
What does this mean in terms of hormone replacement therapy? These findings suggest that estrogen is neuroprotective in young females, and that estrogen restrains neural inflammation through suppression of circulating immune cells in the periphery.
In humans, immune cells from post-menopausal women secrete higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines than pre-menopausal women Schurman et al. These results suggest that when estrogens are given to older women, they are likely to increase pro-inflammatory cytokines, which could potentially increase neurodegenerative events in the brain.
A separate report has shown that cognitive impairment in the elderly are associated with higher amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines Yaffe et al. In summary, it is clear that estrogen replacement therapy has benefits in young females, but these same benefits may not occur in aged females.
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Menopause is a process that every woman's body must go through. Most women probably know the side effects, symptoms, and overall discomfort that come with menopause and this can, of course, make them feel worried that it may affect their personal, social, or professional lives.4/4(1).
the quality of their life improves with hormone replacement therapy. When I stress free happiness for myself and my two sons. Before this research paper, when women talk to me about their Microsoft Word - Research Paper benjaminpohle.com The research team aims to enroll pregnant women, whose children will be followed from birth through puberty.
Additionally, Walter Rogan, a senior investigator in the NIEHS Epidemiology Branch, is heading the Study of Estrogen Activity and Development. Homosexuality and Hormone Levels - Homosexuality and Hormone Levels Research Papers examine the effects of hormones on homosexual attraction.
How to Write a Research Paper on Hormones in Food This page is designed to show you how to write a research project on the topic you see to the left.