This article claims that transforming texts from one genre to another, using information and ideas in the source text to create new texts for different audiences and purposes, helps students to become aware of and take into account genre-related features such as writer-reader relationship, purpose of writing, and medium.
A process genre approach to teaching writing A process genre approach to teaching writing Richard Badger and Goodith White This paper analyses the strengths and weaknesses of product, process, and genre approaches to writing in terms of their view of writing and how they see the development of writing.
It argues that the three approaches are complementary, and identifies an approach which is informed by each of them. Over the last 20 years, process and product approaches have dominated much of the teaching of writing that happens in the EFL classroom.
In the last ten years, genre approaches have gained adherents e. SwalesTribble This paper offers some discussion of these approaches, and argues for a synthesis which draws on all three. It will cover both linguistic factors how the approaches conceptualize writing and educa- tional factors how the approaches conceptualize learning to write.
Product One of the most explicit descriptions of product approaches is provided approaches by Pincas a.
She sees writing as being primarily about linguistic knowledge, with attention focused on the appropriate use of vocabulary, syntax, and cohesive devices.
Pincas b In this approach, learning to write has four stages: The familiarization stage aims to make learners aware of certain features of a particular text. A typical product class might involve the learners familiarizing themselves with a set of descriptions of houses, possibly written especially for teaching purposes, by identifying, say, the prepositions and the names of rooms used in a description of a house.
At the controlled stage, they might produce some simple sentences about houses from a substitution table. The learners might then produce a piece of guided writing based on a picture of a house and, finally, at the stage of free writing, a description of their own home.
In short, product-based approaches see writing as mainly concerned with knowledge about the structure of language, and writing development as mainly the result of the imitation of input, in the form of texts provided by the teacher.
Process Although there are many different process approaches to writing see, approaches for example, HedgeWhite and Arndt they share some core features. Tribble suggests that process approaches stress.
There are different views on the stages that writers go through in producing a piece of writing, but a typical model identifies four stages: This is a cyclical process in which writers may return to pre-writing activities, for example, after doing some editing or revising.
A typical prewriting activity in the process approach would be for learners to brainstorm on the topic of houses.
This would guide the first draft of a description of a particular house. After discussion, learners might revise the first draft working individually or in groups. Finally, the learners would edit or proof-read the text.
Like babies and young children who develop, rather than learn, their mother tongue, second language learners develop, rather than consciously learn, writing skills. Process approaches have a somewhat monolithic view of writing. The process of writing is seen as the same regardless of what is being written and who is writing.
So while the amount of pre-writing in producing a postcard to a friend and in writing an academic essay are different see Tribble While a process approach may ignore the context in which writing happens, this is unusual. For example Hedge Summarizing, we can say that process approaches see writing primarily as the exercise of linguistic skills, and writing development as an unconscious process which happens when teachers facilitate the exercise of writing skills.
Genre approaches Genre approaches are relative newcomers to ELT. However, there are strong similarities with product approaches and, in some ways, genre approaches can be regarded as an extension of product approaches.
Like product approaches, genre approaches regard writing as pre- dominantly linguistic but, unlike product approaches, they emphasize that writing varies with the social context in which it is produced.
So, we have a range of kinds of writing-such as sales letters, research articles, and reports - linked with different situations Flowerdew As not all learners need to operate in all social contexts, this view of texts has implications for the writing syllabus.
For genre analysts, the central aspect of the situation is purpose. Different kinds of writing, or genres, such as letters of apology, recipes, or law reports, are used to carry out different purposes. Indeed, Swales defines a genreUsing a genre approach for writing As we saw in the last post, all ‘real life’ writing is embedded in a social situation: we write for a specific purpose and audience.
We can, of course, also do this in the classroom, but often we are engaged more in rehearsing skills that can later be applied outside the class. evidence for the effectiveness of using genre-based Approachin developing students' writing performance and attitudes towards writing. Further, the study highlighted the advantages of using genre-based approach in developing writing skills and attitudes towards writing.
writing, to make decisions about the teaching methods and materials to use, and to approach current instructional paradigms with a more critical eye.
Genre approaches have not been uncritically adopted in L2 writing classrooms, however. Australian researchers such as Martin have recognised the empowering nature of mastery of genres, and have consequently urged the use of genre-based writing teaching in the Australian school system (see Gee, for a concise account of this research).
With comparing and analysis of values and limitations of product approach, process approach and genre-based approach, Badger and White () argue that the three approaches are complementary and propose the process-genre approach for writing instruction.
A process genre approach to teaching writing Richard Badger and Goodith White This paper analyses the strengths and weaknesses of product, process.