She occurs in the Orphic Theogonies as the first being to emerge at creation alongside Hydros the Primordial Waters and Mud. Thesis was sometimes portrayed as the female aspect of the first-born, bi-gendered god Phanes Life. Thesis also appears in myth in the guise of Metisthe creator-goddess devoured by Zeus, and Tethys the nurse, mother of all creation.
Many religious mythologies had a view of Earth as being a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts e.
Teilhard later influenced Thomas Berry and many Catholic humanist thinkers of the 20th century. Buckminster Fuller is generally credited with making the idea respectable in Western scientific circles in the 20th century.
Building to some degree on his observations and artifacts, e.
As the above claims are not testable, they are outside the bounds of current science. These are conjectures and perhaps can only be considered as social and maybe political philosophy; they may have implications for theologyor thealogy as Zell-Ravenheart and Isaac Bonewits put it.
Range of views[ edit ] According to James Kirchner there is a spectrum of Gaia hypotheses, ranging from the undeniable to radical. At one end is the undeniable statement that the organisms on the Earth have radically altered its composition.
Today many scientists consider Gaia thesis such a view and any stronger views are unlikely to be correct. In this view, the atmosphere, the seas, the terrestrial crust would be the result of Gaia thesis carried out by Gaia, through the coevolving diversity of living organisms.
The most extreme form of Gaia theory is that the entire Earth is a single unified organism with a highly intelligent mind that arose as an emergent property of the whole biosphere.
Scientists contend that there is no evidence at all to support this last point of view, and it has come about because many people do not understand the concept of homeostasis. Many non-scientists instinctively and incorrectly see homeostasis as a process that requires conscious control[ dubious — discuss ][ citation needed ].
The more speculative versions of Gaia, including versions in which it is believed that the Earth is actually conscious, sentient, and highly intelligent, are usually considered outside the bounds of what is usually considered science.
Gaia in biology and science[ edit ] Main article: Gaia hypothesis Buckminster Fuller has been credited as the first to incorporate scientific ideas into a Gaia theory, which he did with his Dymaxion map of the Earth.
A variant of this hypothesis was developed by Lynn Margulisa microbiologist, in Her version is sometimes called the "Gaia Theory" note uppercase-T. Her model is more limited in scope than the one that Lovelock proposed. Whether this sort of system is present on Earth is still open to debate.
Some relatively simple homeostatic mechanisms are generally accepted. For example, when atmospheric carbon dioxide levels rise, plants are able to grow better and thus remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The Gaia hypothesis is sometimes viewed from significantly different philosophical perspectives.
Some evolutionary biologists, on the other hand, view it as an undirected emergent property of the ecosystem: Depending on how strongly the case is stated, the hypothesis conflicts with mainstream neo-Darwinism.
Most biologists would accept Daisyworld-style homeostasis as possible, but would certainly not accept the idea that this equates to the whole biosphere acting as one organism. Scientists contend that there is no evidence to support this belief. Gaia in the social sciences[ edit ] This section needs expansion.
You can help by adding to it. June A social science view of Gaia theory is the role of humans as a keystone species who may be able to accomplish global homeostasis.
Alan Marshall, in the Department of Social Sciences at Mahidol University, for example, reflects upon the way Gaia philosophy has been used and advocated by environmentalists, spiritualists, managers, economists, and scientists and engineers see The Unity of Nature,Imperial College Press: Social Scientists themselves in the s gave up on systems ideas of society since they were interpreted as supporting conservatism and traditionalism.
Gaia in politics[ edit ] Some radical political environmentalists who accept some form of the Gaia theory call themselves Gaians. In effect, they seek to cooperate to become the "system consciously manipulating to make conditions more conducive to life".
Such activity defines the homeostasis, but for leverage it relies on deep investigation of the homeorhetic balances, if only to find places to intervene in a system which is changing in undesirable ways.
Tony Bondhus brings up the point in his book, Society of Conceivia, that if Gaia is alive, then societies are living things as well. This suggests that our understanding of Gaia can be used to create a better society and to design a better political system.
Gaians do not passively ask "what is going on", but rather, "what to do next", e.Thetis (/ ˈ θ ɛ t ɪ s /; Greek: Θέτις), is a figure from Greek mythology with varying mythological roles. She mainly appears as a sea nymph, a goddess of water, or one of the 50 Nereids, daughters of the ancient sea god Nereus..
When described as a Nereid in Classical myths, Thetis was the daughter of Nereus and Doris, and a granddaughter of Tethys with whom she sometimes shares.
ENCYCLOPEDIA. GAEA or GE (Gaia or Gê), the personification of the earth. She appears in the character of a divine being as early as the Homeric poems, for we read in the Iliad (iii.
) that black sheep were sacrificed to her, and that she was invoked by persons taking oaths. ESA Euronews: Setting off to Mercury with BepiColombo Mercury is a planetary misfit, an oddball in the solar system, and this month the BepiColombo mission is setting off to study it in unprec.
Orbital changes to solar radiation inside the Arctic circle alone are insufficient to end all ice ages. A new paper by Ralf Ellis proposes an elegant solution to the mystery of how ice ages terminate.
Life itself could provide the ultimate thermostat control. Through Gaia, the Earth sustains a kind of homeostasis, the maintenance of relatively constant conditions. The truly startling component of the Gaia hypothesis is .
That is the joke, with the implication that some people in Wayne’s social circle also pay for some reference to Guy in idle social conversation. Bruno Latour elaborates upon Gaia, a political biological theory concerning the Earth by James Lovelock. On June 13th TOP Medical was founded with the aim to identify new and innovative medical device technologies and introduce them to the European, and more specifically the Benelux market.
The Gaia hypothesis (/ ˈ ɡ aɪ. ə /, / ˈ ɡ eɪ. ə /, / ˈ ɡ aɪ ˈ ʌ /), also known as the Gaia theory or the Gaia principle, proposes that living organisms interact with their inorganic surroundings on Earth to form a synergistic and self-regulating, complex system that helps to maintain and perpetuate the conditions for life on the planet..
The hypothesis was formulated by the.