In other words, these crises have their root in the most profound problems of the soul, from whence they spread to the whole personality of present-day man and all his activities. We will study it especially as such.
The assignats were almost worthless; the little value which remained drained away each day with accelerated speed. One could not print enough money in one night to meet the most pressing needs of the next day The public revenues were nonexistent; citizens had lost the habit of paying taxes.
The Louis d'or gold coinwhich was worth livres in paper money at the beginning of the Directory, increased to and then livres. The price of a liter of wine increased from 50 sous in October to ten francs and then thirty francs.
A measure of flour worth two livres in was worth livres in October To fill the treasury, the Directory resorted in December to a forced loan of million livres from wealthy citizens, who were required to pay between 50 and livres each. To fight inflation, the government began minting more coins of gold and silver, which had real value; the french revolution results essay help had little gold but large silver reserves, largely in the form of silverware, candlesticks and other objects confiscated from the churches and the nobility.
Bonaparte demanded gold or silver from each city he conquered, threatening to destroy the cities if they did not pay.
These measures reduced the rate of inflation. This success produced a new problem: Speculation became rampant, and property in Paris and other cities could change hands several times a day.
Another major problem faced by the Directory was the enormous public debt, the same problem that had led to the Revolution in the first place. In September—Decemberthe Directory attacked this problem by declaring bankruptcy on two-thirds of the debt, but assured payment on the other third.
This resulted in the ruin of those who held large quantities of government bonds, but stabilized the currency. To keep the treasury full, the Directory also imposed new taxes on property owners, based on the number of fireplaces and chimneys, and later on the number of windows, of their residences.
It refrained from adding more taxes on wine and salt, which had helped cause the revolution, but added new taxes on gold and silver objects, playing cards, tobacco, and other luxury products.
Through these means, the Directory brought about a relative stability of finances which continued through the Directory and Consulate. To assure the supply of food to the sans-culottes in Paris, the base of support of the Jacobinsthe Convention had strictly regulated grain distribution and set maximum prices for bread and other essential products.
As the value of the currency dropped, the fixed prices soon did not cover the cost of production, and supplies dropped.
The Convention was forced to abolish the maximum on 24 Decemberbut it continued to buy huge quantities of bread and meat which it distributed at low prices to the Parisians. This Paris food distribution cost a large part of the national budget, and was resented by the rest of the country, which did not have that benefit.
By earlythe grain supply was supplemented by deliveries from Italy and even from Algeria. Despite the increased imports, the grain supply to Paris was not enough.
The Ministry of the Interior reported on 23 March that there was only enough wheat to make bread for five days, and there were shortages of meat and firewood. The Directory was forced to resume deliveries of subsidized food to the very poor, the elderly, the sick, and government employees.
The food shortages and high prices were one factor in the growth of discontent and the Gracchus Babeuf 's uprising, the Conspiracy of the Equalsin The harvests were good in the following years and the food supplies improved considerably, but the supply was still precarious in the north, the west, the southeast, and the valley of the Seine.
Babeuf had, sincebeen drawn to the Agrarian Law, an agrarian reform preconized by the ancient Roman brothers, Tiberius and Gaius Gracchusof sharing goods in common, as means of achieving economic equality.
By the time of the fall of Robespierrehe had abandoned this as an impractical scheme and was moving towards a more complex plan. Babeuf did not believe that the mass of French citizens was ready for self-government; accordingly, he proposed a dictatorship under his leadership until the people were educated enough to take charge.
Your tribune presents himself with confidence. However, his popularity increased in the working-class of the capital with the drop in value of the assignats, which rapidly resulted in the decrease of wages and the rise of food prices. The Conspiracy of Equals was organized in a novel way: This conspiratorial structure was later adopted by Marxist movements.Very interesting book concerning Jefferson's views, thoughts and behavior towards the French Revolution.
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Very interesting book concerning Jefferson's views, thoughts and behavior towards the French Revolution. An interpretation by the author through original research and readings of other Jeffersonian experts.
Alan Woods explains the internal dynamics of the French revolution and above all the role played by the masses.