Endocrine organ and hormones study guide

The endocrine system controls water equilibrium by regulating the solute concentration of the blood. Growth, metabolism, and tissue maturation.

Endocrine organ and hormones study guide

Circulatory Loops There are 2 primary circulatory loops in the human body: Pulmonary circulation transports deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungswhere the blood picks up oxygen and returns to the left side of the heart.

The pumping chambers of the heart that support the pulmonary circulation loop are the right atrium and right ventricle. Systemic circulation carries highly oxygenated blood from the left side of the heart to all of the tissues of the body with the exception of the heart and lungs. Systemic circulation removes wastes from body tissues and returns deoxygenated blood to the right side of the heart.

The left atrium and left ventricle of the heart are the pumping chambers for the systemic circulation loop. The size of blood vessels corresponds with the amount of blood that passes through the vessel. All blood vessels contain a hollow area called the lumen through which blood is able to flow.

Around the lumen is the wall of the vessel, which may be thin in the case of capillaries or very thick in the case of arteries.

All blood vessels are lined with a thin layer of simple squamous epithelium known as the endothelium that keeps blood cells inside of the blood vessels and prevents clots from forming. The endothelium lines the entire circulatory system, all the way to the interior of the heart, where it is called the endocardium.

There are three major types of blood vessels: Blood vessels are often named after either the region of the body through which they carry blood or for nearby structures. For example, the brachiocephalic artery carries blood into the brachial arm and cephalic head regions. One of its branches, the subclavian artery, runs under the clavicle; hence the name subclavian.

The subclavian artery runs into the axillary region where it becomes known as the axillary artery. Arteries and Arterioles Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.

The pulmonary trunk and arteries of the pulmonary circulation loop provide an exception to this rule — these arteries carry deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs to be oxygenated.

Arteries face high levels of blood pressure as they carry blood being pushed from the heart under great force. To withstand this pressure, the walls of the arteries are thicker, more elastic, and more muscular than those of other vessels. The largest arteries of the body contain a high percentage of elastic tissue that allows them to stretch and accommodate the pressure of the heart.

Smaller arteries are more muscular in the structure of their walls. The smooth muscles of the arterial walls of these smaller arteries contract or expand to regulate the flow of blood through their lumen.

Endocrine System: Facts, Functions and Diseases

In this way, the body controls how much blood flows to different parts of the body under varying circumstances. The regulation of blood flow also affects blood pressure, as smaller arteries give blood less area to flow through and therefore increases the pressure of the blood on arterial walls.

Arterioles are narrower arteries that branch off from the ends of arteries and carry blood to capillaries. They face much lower blood pressures than arteries due to their greater number, decreased blood volume, and distance from the direct pressure of the heart.

Thus arteriole walls are much thinner than those of arteries. Arterioles, like arteries, are able to use smooth muscle to control their aperture and regulate blood flow and blood pressure. Capillaries Capillaries are the smallest and thinnest of the blood vessels in the body and also the most common.

Capillaries connect to arterioles on one end and venules on the other. Capillaries carry blood very close to the cells of the tissues of the body in order to exchange gases, nutrients, and waste products.

The walls of capillaries consist of only a thin layer of endothelium so that there is the minimum amount of structure possible between the blood and the tissues. The endothelium acts as a filter to keep blood cells inside of the vessels while allowing liquids, dissolved gases, and other chemicals to diffuse along their concentration gradients into or out of tissues.

Precapillary sphincters are bands of smooth muscle found at the arteriole ends of capillaries. These sphincters regulate blood flow into the capillaries.

Since there is a limited supply of blood, and not all tissues have the same energy and oxygen requirements, the precapillary sphincters reduce blood flow to inactive tissues and allow free flow into active tissues. Veins and Venules Veins are the large return vessels of the body and act as the blood return counterparts of arteries.

This lack of pressure allows the walls of veins to be much thinner, less elastic, and less muscular than the walls of arteries. Veins rely on gravity, inertia, and the force of skeletal muscle contractions to help push blood back to the heart.

To facilitate the movement of blood, some veins contain many one-way valves that prevent blood from flowing away from the heart. As skeletal muscles in the body contract, they squeeze nearby veins and push blood through valves closer to the heart.In this lesson, you'll learn about the 11 organ systems, which are made of multiple organs that work together to keep the human body functioning.

The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and the approximately 5 liters of blood that the blood vessels transport. Responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and cellular waste products throughout the body, the cardiovascular system is powered by the body’s hardest-working organ — the heart, which is only about the size of a closed fist.

Anterior pituitary insufficiency is an uncommon disease. The etiology includes destruction of the anterior pituitary gland by tumors, infarction (postpartum necrosis or Sheehan's syndrome), idiopathic disease (Simmonds' disease), surgery, and radiotherapy to the pituitary gland.

A Kid's Guide to Life Sciences: The Human Body Systems. Human anatomy is the study of the systems of the body which is made up of cells, tissues, and organs.

The major endocrine organs of the body include the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal and thymus glands, the pancreas, and the gonads.. Hypothalamus.

Endocrine organ and hormones study guide

The hypothalamus, which is part of the nervous system, is also considered as a major endocrine organ because it produces several benjaminpohle.com is an important autonomic nervous system and endocrine control center of the brain .

This article will review the material you have learned in A&P class. Knowing and understanding the main anatomy and organ functions of each human body system will set you on track towards scoring higher on the HESI without studying harder or spending hours poring over every detail of your massive textbook.