Costs Considerations in Refreshing Vulnerable IT Networks John Leahy Virtually all IT networks must deal with the growing threat of cybersecurity intrusion and yet retain sufficient features to meet mission needs.
Play media A video on the health effects of shift work Shift work increases the risk for the development of many disorders. Shift work sleep disorder is a circadian rhythm sleep disorder characterized by insomniaexcessive sleepinessor both.
Shift work is considered essential for the diagnosis. People working rotating shifts are more vulnerable than others. When individual chronotype is opposite of shift timing day person working night shiftthere is a greater risk of circadian rhythms disruption.
The way the shift pattern is designed affects how shift workers sleep, eat and take holidays. Some shift patterns can exacerbate fatigue by limiting rest, increasing stress, overworking staff or disrupting their time off.
Longer shifts are also associated with more injuries and accidents: Workers with sleep deprivation are far more likely to be injured or involved in an accident.
Sleep during the day is shorter and less consolidated than night-time sleep. The relative effects of sleep inertia vs. Acute sleep deprivation occurs during long shifts with no breaks, as well as during night shifts when the worker sleeps in the morning and is awake during the afternoon, prior to the work shift.
A night shift worker with poor daytime sleep may be awake for more than 18 hours by the end of his shift.
The effects of acute sleep deprivation can be compared to impairment due to alcohol intoxication,  with 19 hours of wakefulness corresponding to a BAC of 0.
In one study of EMS providers, hour shifts were not associated with a higher frequency of negative safety outcomes when compared to shorter shifts. The loss of two hours of nightly sleep for a week causes an impairment similar to those seen after 24 hours of wakefulness.
After two weeks of such deficit, the lapses in performance are similar to those seen after 48 hours of continual wakefulness. Circadian disruption by working at night causes symptoms like excessive sleepiness at work and sleep disturbances.
Shift work sleep disorder also creates a greater risk for human error at work. Research has shown that when controllers remain "in position" for more than two hours, even at low traffic levels, performance can deteriorate rapidly, so they are typically placed "in position" for minute intervals with 30 minutes between intervals.
These practices and policies can include selecting an appropriate shift schedule or rota and using an employee scheduling software to maintain it, setting the length of shifts, managing overtime, increasing lighting levels, providing shift worker lifestyle training, retirement compensation based on salary in the last few years of employment which can encourage excessive overtime among older workers who may be less able to obtain adequate sleepor screening and hiring of new shift workers that assesses adaptability to a shift work schedule.
Allowing frequent breaks and scheduling 8 or hour shifts instead of 12 hour shifts can also minimize fatigue and help to mitigate the negative health effects of shift work.
It contrasts with the use of overtime to increase production at the margin. Both approaches incur higher wage costs. Twelve-hour shifts are also used with a very slow rotation in the petroleum industry.
Twenty-four-hour shifts are common in health care and emergency services. Shift plan The shift plan or rota is the central component of a shift schedule. Rotation of shifts can be fast, in which a worker changes shifts more than once a week, or slow, in which a worker changes shifts less than once a week.
Rotation can also be forward, when a subsequent shift starts later, or backward, when a subsequent shift starts earlier. The United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommends employers avoid quick shift changes and any rotating shift schedules should rotate forward.
Employers should also attempt to minimize the number of consecutive night shifts, long work shifts and overtime work. A poor work environment can exacerbate the strain of shift work.
Adequate lighting, clean air, proper heat and air conditioning, and reduced noise can all make shift work more bearable for workers. Alcohol consumption, caffeine consumption and heavy meals in the few hours before sleep can worsen shift work sleep disorders.
Exhibit of the National Polytechnic Museum in Sofia Algorithmic scheduling of shift work can lead to what has been colloquially termed as "clopening"  where the shift-worker has to work the closing shift of one day and the opening shift of the next day back-to-back resulting in short rest periods between shifts and fatigue.
Co-opting employees to fill the shift roster helps to ensure that the human costs  are taken into account in a way which is hard for an algorithm to do as it would involve knowing the constraints and considerations of each individual shift worker and assigning a cost metric to each of those factors.
Through this process, the shift hours are evened out by human-driven market mechanism rather than an algorithmic process. Zopiclone has also been investigated as a potential treatment, but It is unclear if it is effective in increasing daytime sleep time in shift workers.
There are however no reports of side effects. In post-marketing surveillance Modafinil was associated with the severe Steven Johnson syndrome. The European Medicines Agency withdrew the license for Modafinil for shift workers for the European market because it judged that the benefits did not outweigh the side effects.
Caffeine has also been shown to reduce errors made by shift workers. Among all workers, those who usually worked the night shift had a much higher prevalence of short sleep duration Lastly, John Driscoll matched Borton’s three questions to the stages of the experiential learning cycle and added trigger questions.
 By linking trigger questions to Borton’s framework, we. The one process ongoing that will take millions of years to correct is the loss of genetic and species diversity by the destruction of natural habitats. When air molecules are set to vibrate, the ear perceives the variations in pressure as sound (OTM/Driscoll).
The vibrations are converted into mechanical energy by the middle ear, subsequently. Hampshire Workforce Development Driscoll (by Borton) Model of Reflection () This model focuses on 3 stem questions: “What?”, “So what?” and “Now what?
Matching these questions to an experiential learning cycle and adding trigger. In this reflective account essay, I will be describing nursing skills that I undertook during my practice placement, using Driscoll’s () reflective cycle, a recognised framework for reflection to demonstrate my ability to reflect on different nursing skill.
Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn. At the going down of the sun and in the morning, We will remember them. Robert Laurence Binyon.