Cause and treatment[ edit ] Dissociative identity disorder multiple personality disorder Cause: Dissociative identity disorder is caused by ongoing childhood trauma that occurs before the ages of six to nine.
Etiology and Introduction Overview Since the s, the concept of dissociative disorders has taken on a new significance. They now receive a large amount of theoretical and clinical attention from persons in the fields of psychiatry and psychology.
Dissociative disorders are a group of psychiatric syndromes characterized by disruptions of aspects of consciousness, identity, memory, motor behavior, or environmental awareness. Case Studies Dissociative amnesia A year-old female experienced the onset of dissociative amnesia during an academic trip to China.
The woman was sent home but could not remember her name, address, family, or any facts about her home life. The woman finally remembered having witnessed a murder that night in China.
She recalled being unable to help the victim out of fear for her own safety. She came to remember other aspects of her life; however, some memories remain elusive.
Dissociative Identity Disorder In a case of dissociative identity disorder, a woman who had been physically and sexually abused by her father throughout her childhood and adolescence exhibited at least 4 personalities as an adult. Only one of the personalities, the protective adult, was consciously aware of the others, and during therapy sessions was realized to have been developed to protect the woman during the abusive experiences.
When one of the secondary personalities took over, it often led to episodic dissociative amnesia, during which the woman acted out according to the nature of the dominating personality. During intensive therapy sessions, each personality was called upon as necessary to facilitate their integration.
It often occurs in individuals who are also affected by some other psychological nondissociative disorder, as in the case of a year-old college student who was suffering from sleep deprivation at the onset of depersonalization disorder.
The young man experienced increased anxiety as he struggled to meet his responsibilities as a scholarship-dependent student athlete. Teammates expressed concern about his apparent distress to their coach, who arranged for the young man to speak with a therapist.
The young man described feeling as though he were observing the interactions of others as if it were a film.
Pathology From a psychological perspective, dissociation is a protective activation of altered states of consciousness in reaction to overwhelming psychological trauma.
After the patient returns to baseline, access to the dissociative information is diminished. Psychiatrists have theorized that the memories are encoded in the mind but are not conscious, ie, they have been repressed.
In normal memory function, memory traces are laid down in 2 forms, explicit and implicit. Explicit memories are available for immediate and conscious recall and include recollection of facts and experiences of which one is conscious, whereas implicit memories are independent of conscious memory.
Further, explicit memory is not well developed in children, raising the possibility that more memories become implicit at this age. Alterations at this level of brain function in response to trauma may mediate changes in memory encoding for those events and time periods.
Dissociation is also a neurologic phenomenon that can occur from various drugs and chemicals that may cause acute, subchronic, and chronic dissociative episodes. Dissociative Amnesia The essential feature of dissociative amnesia is an inability to recall important personal information that is more extensive than can be explained by normal forgetfulness.
Remembering such information is usually traumatic or produces stress.NAMI, the National Alliance on Mental Illness, is the nation’s largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected by mental illness.
Dissociative disorders involve problems with memory, identity, emotion, perception, behavior and sense of self. Learn more at benjaminpohle.com Dissociative disorders involve problems with memory, identity, emotion, perception, behavior and sense of self.
Dissociative symptoms can potentially disrupt every area of mental functioning. Dissociative symptoms can potentially disrupt every area of mental functioning. Sep 11, · The differential diagnoses of dissociative amnesia are any organic mental disorders, dementia, delirium, transient global amnesia, Korsakoff disease, postconcussion amnesia, substance abuse, other dissociative disorders, and malingering factitious disorder.
Dissociative identity disorder is characterized by the presence of two or more distinct or split identities or personality states that continually have power over the person's behavior.
Because the symptoms of dissociative disorders often occur with other disorders, such as anxiety and depression, medicines to treat those co-occurring problems, if present, are sometimes used in.