It began with a simple boycott of Jewish shops and ended in the gas chambers at Auschwitz as Adolf Hitler and his Nazi followers attempted to exterminate the entire Jewish population of Europe. In Januaryafter a bitter ten-year political struggle, Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany. Hitler also put forward racial theories asserting that Germans with fair skin, blond hair and blue eyes were the supreme form of human, or master race.
Moses Mendelssohn Though reading German books was forbidden in the s by Jewish inspectors who had a measure of police power in Germany, Moses Mendelson found his first German book, an edition of Protestant theology, at a well-organized system of Jewish charity for needy Talmud students.
Mendelssohn read this book and found proof of the existence of God — his first meeting with a sample of European letters. Mendelssohn learned many new languages, and with his whole education consisting of Talmud lessons, he thought in Hebrew and translated for himself every new piece of work he met into this language.
The divide between the Jews and the rest of society was caused by a lack of translation between these two languages, and Mendelssohn translated the Torah into German, bridging the gap between the two; this book allowed Jews to speak and write in German, preparing them for participation in German culture and secular science.
InMendelssohn began to serve as a teacher in the house of Isaac Bernhard, the owner of a silk factory, after beginning his publications of philosophical essays in German.
He also believed that revelation could not contradict reason. Like the deists, Mendelssohn claimed that reason could discover the reality of God, divine providence, and immortality of the soul.
He was the first to speak out against the use of excommunication as a religious threat. At the height of his career, inMendelssohn was publicly challenged by a Christian apologist, a Zurich pastor named John Lavaterto defend the superiority of Judaism over Christianity.
From then on, he was involved in defending Judaism in print. Speculating that no religious institution should use coercion and emphasized that Judaism does not coerce the mind through dogma, he argued that through reason, all people could discover religious philosophical truths, but what made Judaism unique was its revealed code of legal, ritual, and moral law.
He said that Jews must live in civil society, but only in a way that their right to observe religious laws is granted, while also recognizing the needs for respect, and multiplicity of religions. He campaigned for emancipation and instructed Jews to form bonds with the gentile governments, attempting to improve the relationship between Jews and Christians while arguing for tolerance and humanity.
He became the symbol of the Jewish Enlightenment, the Haskalah. Austrian Emperor Joseph II was foremost in espousing these new ideals. As early ashe issued the Patent of Toleration for the Jews of Lower Austria, thereby establishing civic equality for his Jewish subjects.
Beforewhen general citizenship was largely nonexistent in the Holy Roman Empire, its inhabitants were subject to varying estate regulations.
In different ways from one territory of the empire to another, these regulations classified inhabitants into different groups, such as dynasts, members of the court entourage, other aristocrats, city dwellers burghersJews, Huguenots in Prussia a special estate untilfree peasantsserfspeddlers and Gypsieswith different privileges and burdens attached to each classification.
Legal inequality was the principle. The concept of citizenship was mostly restricted to cities, especially free imperial cities. Citizenship was often further restricted to city dwellers affiliated to the locally dominant Christian denomination Calvinism, Roman Catholicism, or Lutheranism.
City dwellers of other denominations or religions and those who lacked the necessary wealth to qualify as citizens were considered to be mere inhabitants who lacked political rights, and were sometimes subject to revocable residence permits.
In the 18th century, some Jews and their families such as Daniel Itzig in Berlin gained equal status with their Christian fellow city dwellers, but had a different status from noblemen, Huguenots, or serfs.
They often did not enjoy the right to freedom of movement across territorial or even municipal boundaries, let alone the same status in any new place as in their previous location. With the abolition of differences in legal status during the Napoleonic era and its aftermath, citizenship was established as a new franchise generally applying to all former subjects of the monarchs.
Prussia conferred citizenship on the Prussian Jews inthough this by no means resulted in full equality with other citizens. Jewish emancipation did not eliminate all forms of discrimination against Jews, who often remained barred from holding official state positions.
The German federal edicts of merely held out the prospect of full equality, but it was not genuinely implemented at that time, and even the promises which had been made were modified.
However, such forms of discrimination were no longer the guiding principle for ordering society, but a violation of it. In Austria, many laws restricting the trade and traffic of Jewish subjects remained in force until the middle of the 19th century in spite of the patent of toleration.Over half of these individuals, approximately , Jews, emigrated during the first six years of the Nazi dictatorship, leaving only approximately , Jews in .
Nazi officers and Lithuanian locals look on as a synagogue burns, Lithuania, June · In September , the German army occupied the a look at the genocide of the jews in the nazi germany western half of Poland. Sep 16, · Although the Nazi genocide of Jews during World War II is well known, the concurrent Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients is much less widely known.
An attempt was made to estimate the number of individuals with schizophrenia who were sterilized and murdered by . In any case, for those searching for the comprehensive history of the Nazi march to genocide, 'Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews' will likely be that history for years to come.
It is truly a phenomenal work of history. Sep 16, · Although the Nazi genocide of Jews during World War II is well known, the concurrent Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients is much less widely known.
The devastating Nazi propaganda film The Eternal Jew went so far as to compared Jews to plague carrying rats, a foreshadow of things to come.
In March , Hitler expanded the borders of the Nazi Reich by forcibly annexing Austria.